Deficiency of which Vitamin can raise the risk of uncontrolled bleeding?

Deficiency of vitamin K can raise the risk of uncontrolled bleeding.

Vitamin K plays a key role in helping the blood clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin.

There are three types of vitamin K:

  1. Vitamin  K1 or Phylloquinone;
  2. Vitamin K2 or Menaquinone;
  3. Vitamin K3 or Menadione

Food Source:

Unlike many other vitamins, vitamin K is not typically used as a dietary supplement. Therefore, the best way to fulfil the recommended level of vitamin K is through food sources.

Vitamin K usually found in the following food sources:

  • Vegetables like spinach, asparagus, and broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage
  • Beans and soybeans
  • Strawberries
  • Fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals

Vitamin K is also made by the bacteria in the lower intestinal tract.

Who should take Vitamin K?

  • Have a disease that affects absorption in the digestive tract, such as Crohn’s disease or active celiac disease
  • Take drugs that interfere with vitamin K absorption
  • Are severely malnourished
  • Drink alcohol heavily

Vitamin K is also used to counteract an overdose of the blood thinner Coumadin.

Recommended Intake of vitamin K?

for :

  • Adult male (19 years and above) – 120 micrograms/day
  • Women, pregnant or breastfeeding (19 years -50 years) – 90 micrograms/day


Go to the sources link given below to know the recommended intake of vitamin K for other age groups.



Current Affairs Update- 25 April 2017 

1. India celebrated 8th National Panchayati Raj Diwas on 24th April 2017. 

This date marks a defining moment in the history of decentralization of political power to the grassroots level

On this date in 1993, the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 came into force which institutionalized Panchayati Raj through the village, Intermediate and District level Panchayats.

The first Panchayati Raj Diwas was celebrated in 2010.

2. Government of India has selected  the renowned film maker and actor Kasinathuni Vishwanath for prestigious Dadasaheb Falke Award 2016. 

Dadasaheb Falke Award, the highest for the Indian Cinema,  is conferred by the government for outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema.

The award consists of a Swarn Kamal (Golden Lotus), a cash prize of Rs 10 lakh and a shawl.

3. Social activist Prafulla Samantra was announced one of six winners of the Goldman Environmental Prize. 

Mr. Samantra was one of the key leaders responsible for rallying tribes, indigenous to Odisha’s Niyamgiri region, and using legal provisions to thwart mining-to-metals conglomerate, Vedanta. The company has been forced to suspend plans to mine bauxite.

The Goldman Environmental Prize is a prize awarded annually to grassroots environmental activists, one from each of the world’s six geographic regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, Islands and Island Nations, North America, and South and Central America.
Since 1990 when the awards were first instituted, five Indians — Medha Patkar, M.C. Mehta, Rasheeda Bi, Champaran Shukla and Ramesh Agrawal — have won the prize.

4. Prime Minister Narendra Modi said in the meeting of the governing Council of NITI Aayog,  to have the financial year changed to January-to-December in place of the existing April-to-March and urged the states to take the initiative in this regard.

5.The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is planning to develop a 175 kg satellite to study Venus, the second planet from the Sun.

Venus is often described as the twin sister of the Earth because of the similarities in size, mass, density, bulk composition and gravity.

However, Venus is around 30 per cent closer to the sun as compared to Earth, resulting in much higher solar flux.

Exploration of Venus began in the early 1960s. Venus has been explored by flyby, orbiter, a few lander missions and atmospheric probes.

6. State-owned State Bank of India and realtors’ body CREDAI have signed an agreement to provide loans at a concessional rate to builders as well as customers for affordable housing projects.

The duration of the agreement is for a period of three years.

7. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard) has extended Rs 9,241 crore as refinance support to cooperative banks and regional rural banks (RRBs) in Gujarat for providing crop loans to farmers during 2016-17. 

Nabard has provided Rs 2,274 crore to the state government for irrigation projects under rural infrastructure development fund (RIDF). The fund was given for Saurashtra-Narmada Avataran Irrigation Yojana (SAUNI) link 2 and 4, lift Irrigation project from Kadanna reservoir and Sardar Sarovar canal based drinking water supply project.

8. Bihar becomes the second state after Telangana to pass GST bill.

The Bihar Goods and Services Tax (GST) Bill, 2017, was passed by the bicameral state legislature on 24th April 2017.

Bihar was also the second state in the country, after Assam, to rectify the constitutional amendment Bill.

9. Cabinet Secretary Pradeep Kumar Sinha was given a one-year extension, till June 12 2018. 

Sinha was in May 2015 named as cabinet secretary for a fixed two-year term. He took over the job from June 13.

Sinha, a 1977-batch IAS officer of the Uttar Pradesh cadre, had succeeded Ajit Seth who held the position for four years.

What is the role of Cabinet Secretary? 

The Cabinet Secretariat is under the direct charge of the prime minister.

The administrative head of the secretariat is the cabinet secretary who is also the ex-officio chairman of the civil services board.

The Cabinet Secretariat assists in decision-making in government by ensuring inter-ministerial coordination, ironing out differences among ministries or departments and evolving consensus through the instrumentality of the standing or adhoc committees of secretaries.

10. Union government has issued a new model for Agriculture produces, the Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing (Promotion and Facilitating) Act or APLM. 

The new model will replace the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Act 2003.

Under the new model-

  • Buyers might not have to pay more than 1 per cent of the transacted value as mandi fee in case of fruit and vegetables and two per cent in case of other items.
  • The mandi tax won’t be under any condition charged from the farmer or seller.
  • Agents would to be allowed a commission of more that two per cent by value for non-perishable items; for perishables like fruit and vegetables, not more than four per cent.
  • the state director of agricultural marketing will be the sole authority for granting trading licences to traders or commission agents, taking this over from existing APMCs.
  • any agricultural processing company, retail chains like Walmart or Big Bazaar, farmers’ cooperative with linkages to retail chains and farmer-producer companies can purchase farm goods directly from cultivators, outside the limits of any mandi or private market yard, after getting a licence for doing so.

The new model would open the door for multiple modes for sale and purchase of produce — private wholesale market (‘mandis‘), market yards operated by groups of individuals, licences to private entities for temporary bulk purchase directly from farmers.

Agriculture is a state subject; the Centre can recommend what it wishes to see.

Current Affairs update-23 April 2017

1. International Mother Earth Day was observed on April 22 worldwide.

This year’s campaign is all about environmental & climate literacy.

Each year, Earth Day—April 22—marks the anniversary of the birth of the modern environmental movement in 1970.


After witnessing the ravages of the 1969 massive oil spill in Santa Barbara, California, USA,  U.S. Senator from Wisconsin Gaylord Nelson came with the idea of infusing energy of a mass movement (he was inspired by the student anti-war movement) with an emerging public consciousness about air and water pollution.   It would force environmental protection onto the national political agenda. The idea for a national day to focus on the environment came to known as Earth Day.,

It would force environmental protection onto the national political agenda. The idea for a national day to focus on the environment came to known as Earth Day.,

The idea for a national day to focus on the environment came to known as Earth Day.

Senator Nelson announced the idea for a “national teach-in on the environment” to the national media; persuaded Pete McCloskey, a conservation-minded Republican Congressman, to serve as his co-chair; and recruited Denis Hayes from Harvard as national coordinator. Hayes built a national staff of 85 to promote events across the land. April 22, falling between Spring Break and Final Exams, was selected as the date.

On April 22, 1970, 20 million Americans took to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment in massive coast-to-coast rallies.


2. The Haryana Government has given the second extension of six months to Jha commission to complete its investigation into the conspiracy angle in the violence that occurred during the Jat quota stir in February 2016.

The commission comprises Justice SN Jha (retired), a former chief justice of the Jammu and Kashmir high court, as its chairman, and NC Padhi, IPS(retired) as its member.been extended for another six months, from April 8,

With this extension, now the commission has time from April 8, 2017 to October 7, 2017 to probe the conspiracy.

The commission was set up in April 2016 exclusively to probe conspiracy, if any, behind the violence.

Earlier, the Prakash Singh Committee had examined the role of officers during the agitation and violence.


3. Payments technology company and soon-to-be-launched payments bank Fino Paytech to help National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) digitise rural banks across 5 states.

Fino will assist the digitisation drive in the states of Haryana, MP, Bihar, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Fino will provide over 5000 Aadhaar enabled micro ATMs and financial inclusion gateway services to district central cooperative (DCC) banks and Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS) across these states.


4. Au Financiers India, a non-banking finance company (NBFC), has converted itself into a small finance bank by the name AU Small Finance Bank.

AU obtained a fresh certificate of incorporation from the Corporate Affairs Ministry on April 13 and the Reserve Bank of India on April 19 notified the commencement of operations of this small finance bank.

AU started out as an NBFC and was engaged in the business of extending commercial/personal vehicle loans, micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME) loans and SME loans, serving primarily the low-, middle-income, and under-served customer segments.

As an NBFC, AU had a network of 300 branches spread across 10 States — Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Goa.

Small Finance Banks

Small Finance Banks are a type of niche banks which are specially created to serve banking services in unbanked and under-banked regions in the country.

In the Union budget 2014-2015 presented on July 10, 2014, the Hon’ble Finance Minister announced to develop such banks and are contemplated to meet credit and remittance needs of small businesses, unorganised sector, low-income households, farmers and migrant workforce.


5. The Reserve Bank of India signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on “Supervisory Cooperation and Exchange of Supervisory Information” with Bank of Guyana.

The Reserve Bank has entered into Memorandum of Understanding, Letter for Supervisory Co-operation and Statement of Co-operation with supervisors of a few countries to promote greater co-operation and share supervisory information. With this RBI has signed 40 such MoUs, one Letter for Supervisory Co-operation and one Statement of Co-operation.

Supervisory Cooperation and Exchange of Supervisory Information

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) is the primary global standard setter for the prudential regulation of banks and provides a forum for cooperation on banking supervisory matters. Its mandate is to strengthen the regulation, supervision and practices of banks worldwide with the purpose of enhancing financial stability.


6. The government of India, in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, has decided to issue Sovereign Gold Bonds 2017-18 – Series I (“the Bonds”).

Applications for the bond will be accepted from April 24, 2017 to April 28, 2017.

The Bonds will be issued on May 12, 2017.

The Bonds will be sold through Scheduled Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs), designated Post Offices (as may be notified), Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd (SHCIL) and recognized stock exchanges viz., National Stock exchange of India Limited and Bombay Stock Exchange Ltd.

The Bonds shall be denominated in units of one gram of gold and multiples thereof.

Minimum investment in the Bonds shall be one gram with a maximum limit of subscription of five hundred grams per person per fiscal year (April – March).

Investment in the Bonds shall be eligible for Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR).

The Bonds shall be repayable on the expiration of eight years from May 12, 2017, the date of issue of Gold bonds. Premature redemption of the Bond is permitted from

Premature redemption of the Bond is permitted from the fifth year of the date of issue on the interest payment dates.


7. India has won elections to two subsidiary bodies of a UN organ focussed on social and economic issues.

India along with 12 other members was elected to the Committee for Programme and Coordination (CPC), a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

The 13 members elected for three-year terms, beginning January 2018. include Burkina Faso, Iran, Japan, Pakistan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, the United Kingdom and

Other members include Burkina Faso, Iran, Japan, Pakistan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, the United Kingdom and the United States.

India, along with 19 other nations, was also elected by acclamation to the International Narcotics Control Board for a four-year term beginning January 2018.


8.  First ‘India Indonesia Energy Forum’ held in Jakarta.

On this occasion, a Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia on cooperation in the field of Oil and Gas was signed.

The MOU seeks to establish a cooperative institutional framework to facilitate and to enhance bilateral cooperation in the field of oil and gas sectors on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.

India is the third largest importer of coal from Indonesia. India’s imports of coal from Indonesia amounted to US$ 3.5 billion in 2016.


9. The World Bank, in its latest report, said that the remittances to India drop to 8.9% in 2016.

However, India retained the top spot among remittances receiving nations, according to the report.

According to the report, remittance to the South Asian region declined by 6.4% in 2016 in the face of lower oil prices and fiscal tightening in the GCC countries. “Nationalisation” policies aimed at lowering the unemployment rate of nationals have slowed employment of foreign workers, impacting remittance flows to South Asia, the report said.


10. Minister of State (Independent Charge), Labour & Employment Shri Bandaru Dattatreya gave away ‘NSCI Safety Awards’ for the year 2016 to 70 organisations.

The NSCI Safety Awards are coveted national level awards in the field of Workplace Safety, Health and Environment and given in recognition of establishing effective Safety Management System and excellent safety & health performance by the organisations in Manufacturing, Construction and MSME Sectors during the relevant assessment periods. These Awards are adjudged and declared every year by the National Safety Council.

National Safety Council is a self-supporting non-profit autonomous society, set up by the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Govt. of India on 4th March 1966. Its aim is strengthening a national movement on Safety, Health & Environment to prevent and mitigate a loss of life, human suffering & economic losses and provide support services.

As part of the Council’s services, it has been operating Safety Awards Scheme at the national level for three sectors viz. industrial undertakings (Manufacturing Sector), Construction Projects (Construction Sector) and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME Sector). The main objective of the scheme is to provide national recognition to the organisations which have achieved and sustained a meritorious performance in Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) and for implementing effective OSH management systems, practices and procedures.

Read the full list of Winners of the NSCI Safety Award 2016.



PIB-News Digest

1. 11th Civil Services Day was celebrated on April 21, 2017. 


2. The Union Minister for Communications Shri Manoj Sinha launched the C-DOT PDO (Public Data Office) 

Like earlier PCO (Public Call Office) service which allowed mass people to make phone calls at affordable costs, PDO will provide internet access to the rural masses at affordable costs.

This will also help in realizing the dream of the Prime Minister for Digital India and will bridge the gap between haves and have nots.

Benefits of C-DOT PDO:

  • internet connectivity to every nook and corner of the country
  • will also encourage village-level entrepreneurship and provide strong employment opportunities, especially in rural and semi urban areas.

C-DOT’s Public Data Office, PDO will take internet to the masses


3. MOCISEVA which was launched by Ministry of Commerce & Industry last year completed its first year on 21 April 2017. 

MOCISEVA is a grievances redressal mechanism for Ministry of  Commerce and Industry which uses Twitter as a platform.

In  this Twitter seva, anyone can query on matters relating to Department of Commerce (DoC) and Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP) using #mociseva in Twitter. Their queries are answered within a short period of time.

A special Twitter cell has been set up to respond to the tweets/queries.


4. To discourage adulteration of the milk and milk products in summer season the department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (DAHDF) is regularly reviewing the availability of milk situation in the country with National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and State Milk Federations.

Government of India has enacted Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act-2006 in August 2006 to consolidate the laws relating to food and to establish the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import, to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 is implemented by the Food Safety & Standards Authority of India through the State Food Safety Commissioners in each State.

The State Government machinery is equally responsible in controlling the menace of sale of adulterated/synthetic milk.


5. As part of the innovative initiatives under the “White Revolution” umbrella Schemes, the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHDF) has supported the National Dairy Development Board’s (NDDB) initiative of “Quality Mark” Award Scheme for dairy Cooperatives. 

Quality Award scheme is for promoting and encouraging enhancement of safety, quality and hygiene of milk and milk products manufactured by dairy cooperatives.

It is aimed at bringing about process improvement in the entire value chain from producer to the consumer to ensure availability of safe and quality of milk and products both for the domestic and foreign market.

The quality mark scheme was rolled out on 6th January-2016
The NDDB is in the process of registering the quality mark logo under Trademarks Act, 1998.

The Dairy units which meet the criteria for award of quality mark will be allowed to use the logo on the package containing milk and milk products and the award of the quality mark shall be specific for location of the dairy unit as well as for the process for a particular product.

The mark may be applied to the packaging or printed on a label affixed to the package.

The logo/symbol of quality mark on milk and milk product packages indicates that the dairy unit has adopted and implemented all the processes required as per the food safety and quality management system for manufacture of milk and milk products as per the set quality parameters.


6. On the occasion of civil services day the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released two books namely:

i. “New Beginning” on Innovations for the Prime Minister’s Award for Excellence and

ii. “Fostering Excellence” for initiatives under identified Priority Programmes.


7. An inter-ministerial Indian delegation headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Ajay Narayan Jha, will participate in the 2017 Conference of Parties (COPs) to the Basel, Rotterdam, Stockholm (BRS) Conventions. 

The three COPs to BRS Conventions will be held from April 24 to May 5, 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland.

The theme of the meetings and the high-level segment will be – “A future detoxified: sound management of chemicals and waste”.

Conference of Parties (COPs) to the BRS Convention include – the 13th meeting of the Conference of Parties to “Basel Convention (BC COP 13); the 8th meeting of the Conference of Parties to “Rotterdam Convention (RC COP 8) and 8th meeting of the Conference of Parties to “Stockholm Convention (SC COP 8). 


8. One Crore assets created under Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)  have been geotagged and put in public domain in the last seven months. 

GeoMGNREGA is a unique endeavor of the Ministry of Rural Development in association with National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), ISRO and National Informatics Centre.

A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed by Ministry of Rural Development with NRSC on 24th June 2016 for geo-tagging the assets created under MGNREGS in each gram panchayat. Strength of Space technology has been leveraged.

The geotagging exercise started from 1st September, 2016.

The process of geotagging is going on and all assets under MGNREGS will be geotagged.

Since the inception of the MGNREGS programme in financial year 2006-07, about 2.82 Crore assets have been created under the programme.


9. India and the Republic of Korea (RoK) signed an Inter-governmental Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for Defence Industry Co-operation in Shipbuilding. 

The Inter-Governmental MoU, was conceived under the overall umbrella of the ‘Special Strategic Partnership’ between both sides as declared in the Joint Statement of the Prime Minister of India and the President of RoK in May 2015.

The salient points of the MoU are as follows:-

• Develop and strengthen defence industry co-operation between Republic of India and the Republic of Korea.
• The two sides will recommend the organisations for collaborating in the implementation of specific projects.
• The organisations recommended for co-operative projects may conclude separate agreements (contracts) between them to implement the specific projects.
• The MoU will come into effect from the date of signature by both sides and will be initially valid for a period of five years and would be automatically extendable for further successive five year at a time.

The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) recommended the Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL), Visakhapatnam from the Indian side for the collaboration. RoK will indicate the name of its recommended.

The co-operation with the recommended Korean Shipyard would enable HSL to upgrade and modernise its facilities and execute naval shipbuilding projects in a timely and cost effective manner.


10. Indian Navy successfully undertook the firing of BrahMos Land Attack Supersonic Cruise Missile from a ship. 

Majority of the frontline ships of Indian Navy, like the Kolkata, Ranvir and Teg classes of ships, are capable of firing this missile.

Land Attack variant of BrahMos Missile provides Indian Naval Ships the capability to precisely neutralise selected targets deep inland, far away from coast, from stand-off ranges at sea.

BrahMos Missile has been jointly developed by India and Russia, and its Anti Ship variant has already been inducted into Indian Navy.


11. The World Bank has approved a $375 million loan for capacity augmentation of National Waterway-1(River Ganga) under Jal Marg Vikas Project (JMVP). 

The government is developing NW-1 (River Ganga) under JMVP from Haldia to Varanasi (1390 Km) with the technical and financial assistance of the World Bank at an estimated cost of Rs 5369 crore.

The project would enable commercial navigation of vessels with capacity of 1500-2,000 DWT.

NW-1 is a waterway of national significance passing through Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, serving the major cities of Allahabad, Varanasi, Ghazipur, Bhagalpur, Patna, Howrah, Haldia and Kolkata, and their industrial hinterland including several industries located in the Ganga basin.

The Rail and Road corridors in this region are heavily saturated. Hence, the development of NW-1 would provide an alternative, viable, economical, efficient and eco-friendly mode of transport.


What is the composition of Parliament of India?

The Constitution of India provides for a bicameral Parliament consisting of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).

The President is the formal, constitutional head of the Republic of India.

The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the Lower House of Parliament.

The members are directly elected to the House.

Under the Constitution, the maximum strength of the Lok Sabha can be 552 members. The Constitution provides that up to 530 members would represent territorial constituencies in the states, up to 20 members would represent the Union Territories, and two members would be appointed by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community if there is inadequate representation of the community.

The Rajya Sabha (Council of States) is the Upper House of Parliament.

The House has a maximum of 250 members, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature, science, and social services.

The remaining 238 members are elected by the members of the legislative bodies from the States and Union Territories.

The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and unlike the Lok Sabha, it cannot be dissolved at any time.

Previous:What is the Parliament?

Next: What are the various sessions of the parliament conducted during the year?

Know the Parliament of India-FAQ

In this series of “Know the Parliament of India”, I am sharing the facts and information about the Parliament, its functions, its composition and constitutional framework.

To make the learning easier, I am providing information in Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) format.

So, here is the first question.

1. What is the Parliament?


According to the Constitution of India, the union legislative body is called the Parliament.

The Hindi term for Parliament is Sansad (संसद).

The Parliament of India, representing as it does all politically organised shades of public opinion at the national level, occupies a preeminent and

pivotal position in the country’s constitutional set-up.

The Parliament is a forum constituting representatives of people and representatives of states and Union Territories.

Over the years, the grievances and aspirations of people of this country have been fulfilled and the problems of the country have been resolved through this forum.

 It has also, over the years, carved out for itself a unique place to discuss and debate the issues, policies and promises made to the people of the Republic of India.

Next:  What is the composition of Parliament of India?

Director General of Police (DGP) Geetha Johri was appointed in-charge police chief of Gujarat

Director General of Police (DGP) Geetha Johri was appointed in-charge police chief of Gujarat.

The minister of state for home Pradeepsinh Jadeja announced the decision while stating that Johri has been given the additional charge as she is the senior-most IPS officer in the state.

With this Johari has become the first woman IPS officer to be appointed for the top job in the state.

Johri, a 1982-batch IPS officer, is presently posted as managing director, Gujarat Police Housing Corporation, Gandhinagar.

She has been controversial for her role in the investigation into the 2005 Sohrabuddin Sheikh, his wife Kauserbi and 2006 Tulsiram Prajapati encounter cases. She was the supervisory officer of Sohrabuddin encounter case in 2006-07 when the CID (crime) investigated the case following the apex court’s direction.



Gujarat gets its first woman police chief , DGP Geetha Johri replaces PP Pandey, April 4, 2017, The Indian Express


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