Q. How many types of emergencies are envisaged by the Constitution?
Answer: C. 3
The constitution of India provides for three types of emergency:-
- National Emergency: The Article 352 of Indian Constitution (Proclamation of Emergency) has the provision of this type of emergency.
National emergency is imposed during “war, external aggression or armed rebellion in the whole of India or a part of its territory.”
The President declares national emergency based on the official request from the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
India witnessed the National emergency between 1975 and 1977.
- State Emergency: Article 356 of Indian Constitution has the provisions for State emergency. The State emergency is also known as President’s rule.
If the President, on receipt of the report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, the President may declare State Emergency.
The power of running the state administration shifts from the Chief Minister to the Governor. He administers the state on behalf of the President.
The powers of the Legislature of the State also comes under the authority of Parliament.
- Financial Emergency: Article 360 of Indian constitution provides for this emergency. The Article 360 states, if the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, he may by a Proclamation make a declaration of Financial Emergency.
The proclamation of emergency ceases to operate at the expiration of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament.
During a financial emergency, the President gives directions to the state to adopt certain economic measures as he may deem necessary and adequate. He can reduce the salaries of all government officials, including judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.